Volume 17, Issue 2, Spring 2014, Page 7-510



for humanities sciences al qadisiya, 2014, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 7-24

Daughter's abuse is part of the child-abuse that becomes an international phenomenon in modern era, so it captures the interest of the contemporary feminist Irish playwright, Marina Carr(b.1964) and occupies the center of her plays. Through her drama, Carr gives an opportunity to discover the parental role in the daughter abuse which is really a crucial universal problem. Here-upon, the present study is devoted to investigate the cause and consequences of the daughter abuse by a literary analysis of Carr's plays: By the Bog of Cats (1998) and On Raftery's Hill (2000), which both reflect an intergenerational abuse.
In By the Bog of Cats, Carr dramatizes "mother-daughter" bond and shows how the absent mother affects the whole position of the daughter in the family as well as in life. While in On Raftery's Hill, which reflects "father-daughter" tie, emphasizes the daughters' helplessness before their brutal fathers who have the combined power of men, parents and adults. Finally, there is a conclusion which sums up the major findings of the study.

Backward Moves in Pragmatics and Semantics

Muhannad Abbas Mitib

for humanities sciences al qadisiya, 2014, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 25-43

Linguists who have worked according to Wittgenstein's notion “Don‟t look for the meaning, look for the use,” aim to defuse various linguistic problems by analyzing key words in terms of what they are used to do or the conditions for appropriately using them. Although Moore, Grice and Searle exposed this error – mixing pragmatics with semantics – it still gets committed, now to a different end. Nowadays, the aim is to reckon with the fact that the meanings of a great many sentences undetermine what they would normally mean in using them – even if the sentence is free of indexicality, ambiguity, and vagueness. This can be so because the sentence expresses a “minimal” proposition or even because it does not fully express any proposition. Many theorists are led to defend “truth-conditional pragmatics” (or linguistic “contextualism”), to find a hidden index in every syntactic nook or semantic cranny, or otherwise to pay undue respect to seemingly semantic intuitions and intentions. This paper tries to identify various such moves and explains what is backward about them.