Volume 13, Issue 2, Spring 2010, Page 7-208

Language and Pragmaticsin the Multi-Layered Architecture of Mind

Abbas H. Jassim AsSultan

for humanities sciences al qadisiya, 2010, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 7-28

AbstractAccording to modularity hypothesis, mind consists of a variety of specialized systems, each with its own methods of representation and computation. These systems are of two main types: the input-output modular systems and isotropic non-modular central systems. This present paper briefly reviews all trends and approaches which account for the nature and place of pragmatics in the mind. Relying on previous theories, this paper proposes a model which is called a multi-layered architecture of mind. The new model embraces pragmatics as neither modular nor a unit in the mind-reading module. Moreover, it is neither the outcome of the process of modularization nor innately modular. This paper assumed that pragmatics is a set of principles in the higher cognition chip which is utilized to deal with differing sorts of problems. Therefore, pragmatics is conceived of as non-modular general- purpose set of principles.

Linguistic Study of Existential and Locative" There" with Reference to Hawthorne's Scarlet Letter

Anwar Turki Ateah

for humanities sciences al qadisiya, 2010, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 29-36

Abstract English language has two main kinds of "there": Existential "there" and locative "there". The two uses of "there" are polysemic variations of the same word. In fact, "there" can be understood in different situations with different interpretations either to be existential "there" or locative "there". As existential, "there" is a formal device refers to the existence or the presence of someone or something. It also points to a specific syntactic structure: It functions as a grammatical subject. In addition, "there" as a locative expresses various abstractions of space. It functions as an adverbial rather than as a grammatical subject. This paper investigates the various syntactic, semantic, phonological, and discoursal properties of existential and locative "there". Additionally, this paper formulates an analysis of existential and locative "there" at its syntactic and discoursal levels in English. For this reason, literary work has been chosen. The data of this paper consists of ten texts from Hawthorn's Scarlet Letter.