Volume 8, Issue 1, Spring 2005, Page 13-382


The Difficulties Faced by EFL Learners in Collocation

Dr. Hashem Al-Murade

for humanities sciences al qadisiya, 2005, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 369-382

ABSTRACTThe subject of collocation covers a wide range of linguistic peculiarity and mental intuition. Hence, it is urged that language teaching has much to gain from collocation studies, and mastery of collocation ranges constitutes a great deal to the mastery of foreign languages. The study hypothesized that collocation, whether grammatical or lexical, poses a real problem to the Iraqi EFL learners .The reasons behind the problem are multifarious , the most important of which are: 1) Lack of transnational equivalence between the mother tongue and the foreign language, a cause for literal translation 2) Overgeneralization, which leads to a great deal of incorrect collocation.3) Negligence by both the teacher and learner.4) Lack of experience in the target which results from the inadequate exposure to T.V. programmers ,newspaper ,magazines , etc. The study presents a comprehensive review of the literature of collocation followed by a full description of the test and an analysis of results. The results shows that the students’ performance of the recognition level is far more better than their performance.

PROMISE AND THREAT IN ENGLISH AND ARABICRELIGIOUS TEXTS

HASHIM ALIWEY MOHAMMED; Asst. Prof. RIYADH TARIQ KADHIM AL-AMEEDI

for humanities sciences al qadisiya, 2005, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 327-368

The speech act of threatening may be uttered for many reasons, some of which involve intention or capacity to commit a violent act or a true threat. Some lexicographers such as Collins (1987:123), Pearsal (1998:1930) and Hornby (2000:1408) define threat as a declaration of an intention to inflict pain, injury, damage, or other hostile action on someone in retribution for something done or not done. Some legislators of civil law, Fein et al, (1995:1), suggest that a statement is a true threat when a reasonable person making the statement in context would foresee that such a statement would be interpreted by those to whom it is communicated as a serious expression of an intent to bodily harm or assault. They believe that threat of violence may arise from feelings or ideas that range from one person to another. Added to this, speech may be put in the realm of threatening when the goal of the speech is to end a legal activity through violence with attempt to injure or intimidate (ibid).